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    Free GK & Current Affairs Notes for IAS/JUDICIARY/CLAT - 29 December 2017

    Daily Current Affairs – 28 December 2017

     

    Editorial: Power of the collective

     


     

    Introduction:

    Domestic violence, or intimate partner violence (IPV) as it is sometimes called, is a worldwide problem. Intimate partner violence is referred as a threatened physical, sexual, financial or emotional abuse of a woman by their intimate partner.

    Domestic violence in India includes any form of violence suffered by a person from a biological relative, but typically is the violence suffered by a woman by male members of her family or relatives.

    The greed for dowry, desire for a male child and alcoholism of the spouse are major factors of domestic violence against women in rural areas.

     

    IPV in India

    Domestic violence or IPV is currently defined in India by the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act of 2005.

    §  A 2014 study in The Lancet reports that the reported sexual violence rate in India is among the lowest in the world, the large population of India means that the violence affects 27·5 million over women their lifetime. The instance of violence was reported to be lowest among Buddhist and Jain women, and highest among Muslim women in India.

    §  According to United Nation Population Fund Report, around two-third of married Indian women are victims of domestic violence and as many as 70 per cent of married women in India between the age of 15 and 49 are victims of beating, rape or forced sex.

    §  In India, more than 55 percent of the women suffer from domestic violence, especially in the states of Bihar, U.P., M.P. and other northern states.

    §  Physical injury is the most visible form of domestic/Intimate partner violence.

    §  Emotional abuse has been gaining more and more recognition in recent years as an incredibly common form of domestic violence within the private home throughout developing nations such as India.

    §  Most of the risk factors for intimate partner violence identified in slums appear to be similar to those identified in non-slum settings in India. For example, women’s employment has been found to be a risk factor for intimate partner violence in both slums and non-slum settings in India.

    §  In Indian families with patriarchal norms, women with higher income or status relative to their partners are more likely to be seen as gender deviant and to face violence (NFHS).

    §  In Indian families with patriarchal norms, women with higher income or status relative to their partners are more likely to be seen as gender deviant and to face violence.

     

    Impact of Domestic violence on Women’s’ Health

     

    In a study conducted in India reported that women with a lifetime history of IPV were more likely to have reported poorer physical and mental health compared to those without a lifetime history of IPV.

    §  Violence against women is a significant public health problem in India with prevalence estimates ranging from 6 per cent in one State (e. Himachal Pradesh) to 59 per cent in another (i.e. Bihar).

    §  In the National Family Health Survey, the prevalence of violence against married women in various slum areas in India was reported to be between 23 and 62 per cent.

    §  The factors associated with intimate partner violence were early marriage, husband’s alcohol use, women’s employment, and justification of wife beating.

     

    Norms related to gender roles, community attitudes and the broader social context, including the media, play a significant role in the acceptance and promotion of intimate partner violence.

     

    Role of Self-Help groups to address IPV

     

    Strategies to address IPV have included legal reforms, awareness creation drives, and strengthening of women’s civil rights. As criminal justice solutions have largely been inaccessible to socially precarious women, a more inclusive alternative is to have collective-based resolution mechanisms. The potential of large-scale groups of women, such as self-help groups (SHGs), becomes critical in the Indian context.

     

    §  Many models of community dispute resolution mechanisms have been experimented in India like,

    §  The Nari Adalats (women courts) in various States,

    §  Women’s Resource Centres (Rajasthan),

    §  Shalishi (West Bengal), and

    §  Mahila Panchayats (Delhi)

     

    They have seen IPV as a public issue rather than a personal problem.

     

    §  Several NGOs have co-opted these models so that women can resolve cases of violence without getting entangled in tedious legal processes.

    §  SHGs are the most widely present collectives across regions. The experiences of large-scale programmes offer valuable insights into action for IPV redressal within SHG-led development models.

    §  Collectives of women need adequate investment for building their capacities and mediation of IPV requires specialised structures to avoid manipulation by kinship relations and political affinities.

     

    Way Forward

     

    Violence against women is an extreme manifestation of gender inequality in society and a serious violation of fundamental human rights.

     

    Not all groups of women become safe spaces to discuss violence. SHGs must first become enabling spaces where the economic and social concerns of women are stated as priorities.

    Freedom from violence must be stated as a necessary component of empowerment.

     

    It takes time for most women to recognise that violence is unacceptable. To enable them to understand this, there must be investment in specific training, and gender analysis processes.

     

    SHGs are mostly seen as administrative entities. Their social role can be enhanced to tackle the widespread problem of IPV.

     

    Important Points

    ·         India to become 5th-largest economy in - 2018

    ·         President inaugurated conference at Acharya Nagarjuna University on - 27th December 2017

    ·         Russian satellite lost after being set to launch from wrong spaceport on - 27th December 2017

    ·         Lok Sabha passed GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017 on - 27th December 2017

     

    Details

     

    India to become 5th-largest economy in – 2018

    India will be the world's 5th-largest economy in terms of dollar by the coming year 2018.

    The Centre for Economics and Business Research consultancy’s 2018 World Economic League Table decorated an upbeat view of the global wealth, increased by low-prices energy and technology prices. 
    Deputy Chairman of CEBR, Douglas McWilliams informed that in spite of temporary setbacks, India's wealth has still caught up with that of France and the United Kingdom and in the coming year it will surpass both of them. 

     

    President inaugurated conference at Acharya Nagarjuna University on - 27th December 2017

     President Ram Nath Kovind officially inaugurated the Annual Conference of Indian Economic Association at Acharya Nagarjuna University area on 27th December 2017  in Andhra Pradesh. 
    Indian Economic Association is a registered organization of Indian economic professionals, accepted way back in year 1917, with the aim of contributing a forum for talks and conversations of policy-oriented matters. The Association presently has more than 5000 subscribers, both individual and institutional.


    Chief Minister N Chandrababu Naidu congratulated the President at the program. Talking on this event, Mr Kovind said that India is one of the quickest increasing economies in the world.
    The resourceful policy making is required to handle the various discriminations in our society.

     

    Russian satellite lost after being set to launch from wrong spaceport on - 27th December 2017

    Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin on Wednesday 27th December 2017 informed the loss of a $45m satellite initiated previous month was due to an embarrassing programming mistake.
    Russian space agency Roscosmos informed last month that they had lost communication with the freshly released weather satellite “the Meteor-M” after it propelled from Russia’s new Vostochny cosmodrome in the nation’s far east.

    Talking to Rossiya 24 state TV channel, Rogozin informed that the non-success had been happened due to a human mistake. The rocket carrying the satellites had been scheduled with the wrong collaborates.
    Rogozin further informed that the rocket was really scheduled as if it was taking off from Baikonur. They did not receive the coordinates accurate.

     

    Important Highlights

    ·         The rocket was taking 18 smaller satellites related to scientific, research and business companies from Russia, the US, Japan, Canada, Norway, Sweden and Germany.

    ·         In April past year, after retard and huge costs overruns, Russia initiated its 1st rocket from Vostochny, a day after a technical glitch pushed an embarrassing deferment of the program in the presence of the president, Vladimir Putin.

     

    Lok Sabha passed GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017 on - 27th December 2017

     

    The Lok Sabha on 27th December 2017 approved the GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017. The Bill is focused at rising the tax on luxury vehicles from 15% to 25%.
    The Bill was approved amid disorder by the opposition over controversial statements made by Union Minister Anant Kumar Hegde on secularism and the Constitution. The Bill looks forward to substitute the Ordinance released in September 2017 to give effect to the resolution of the GST Council. The Ordinance issuing for a rise in the GST cess on cars ranging from mid-size to hybrid and the luxury cars to 25%.

     

    The funds gathered after hike in cess on luxury vehicles will be utilized to reimburse states for revenue loss on account of execution of the Goods and Services Tax. The Bill was presented in Lok Sabha by Arun Jaitley on 22nd December 2017. 

     
    Did you know?


    The Act helps the central government to inform the rate of the Goods and Services Tax Compensation Cess on items including pan masala, coal, aerated soft drinks, and tobacco, subject to certain caps.  The amount collected by levying the GST.

     

    Role of women and women’s organization.

     

    Triple Talaq bill

     

     


    Context:

    The government has introduced in the Lok Sabha the much talked-about Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, which seeks to criminalise the practice of instant triple talaq (or ‘talaq-e-biddat’).

     

    Highlights of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill:

     

    §  The Bill seeks to prohibit “any pronouncement (of divorce) by a person upon his wife by words, either spoken or written or in electronic form, or in any other manner”.

    §  The proposed law seeks to make triple talaq a punishable offence and describes the practice as against “constitutional morality” and “gender equity”. Anyone who pronounces instant divorce “shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and a fine”, the bill proposes.

    §  As per the provisions of the Bill, the husband could also be fined and the quantum of fine would be decided by the magistrate hearing the case.

    §  The proposed law will be applicable only to instant triple talaq and will empower the victim to approach a magistrate seeking “subsistence allowance” for herself and minor children. The woman can also seek the custody of her minor children from the magistrate who will take a final call on the issue.

     

    Background:

    The Supreme Court had termed the practice of instant triple talaq unconstitutional while considering a petition to that effect. The then CJI J S Khehar had directed the government to bring in a legislation in this regard.

     

    Opposition:

    Several Muslim clerics and Muslim organisations have opposed the Bill, terming the government’s stand as “uncalled for interference” in the personal laws of the community. The All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) opposed the legislation holding it against the Sharia law and may potentially destroy families if made into a law.

     

    Development processes and the development industry the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

     

    25th National Children’s Science Congress

     

     


    Context: The 25th edition of National Children Science Congress (NCSC-2017) was recently held Gandhinagar, Gujarat.

     

    The theme of the five-day Congress this was ‘Science and Innovation for Sustainable Development’ with the special focus on persons with disabilities.

     

    About the National Children’s Science Congress:

     

    What is it? National Children’s Science Congress (NCSC) is a nationwide Science Communication programme started in the year 1993. It is a programme of National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science and Technology, Government of India organised nationally by NCSTC-Network, New Delhi.

     

    Objectives: The primary objective of the Children’s Science Congress is to make a forum available to children of the age-group of 10-17 years, both from formal school system as well as from out of school, to exhibit their creativity and innovativeness and more particularly their ability to solve a societal problem experienced locally using the method of science.

     

    Significance: The Children’s Science Congress encourages a sense of discovery. It emboldens the participants to question many aspects of our progress and development and express their findings in their vernacular.

     

    Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

     

    The Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy Bill, 2017

    The Parliament has passed the Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy Bill, 2017.

     

    Highlights of the Bill:

    Institution of national importance:  The Bill establishes the Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh.  It declares the Institute as an institution of national importance.  The Institute aims to provide high quality education and research focussing on the themes of petroleum, hydrocarbons and energy.

     

    Authorities of the Institute:  The key authorities of the Institute are as follows: 

    (i) the General Council;

    (ii) the Board of Governors;

    (iii) the Senate; and

    (iv) any other authorities declared by the statutes.

     

    Composition and powers of the Board of Governors:  The Board of Governors will comprise 13 members including:

    (i) the President (to be appointed by the central government);

    (ii) the Director of the Institute;

    (iii) two persons from the Board of Directors of companies that contribute to the Institute’s endowment fund (to be nominated by the central government);

    (iv) five eminent experts in the field of petroleum technology and energy; and

    (v) two professors of the Institute.

     

    Powers of the Board of Governors include: 

    (i) instituting courses of study and laying down standards of proficiency and other academic distinctions;

    (ii) considering proposals for taking loans for the Institute;

    (iii) creating academic, administrative, technical and other posts; and

    (iv) fixing fees and other charges.

     

    Composition and powers of the General Council:  The Council will comprise up to 20 members including the:

    (i) Secretary, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Chairman); (ii) Chairman, Indian Oil Corporation Limited;

    (iii) Secretary, Oil Industry Development Board; and

    (iv) Principal Advisor (Energy), NITI Aayog.

     

    The powers of the Council include: 

    (i) reviewing the broad policies and programmes of the Institute; (ii) advising the Board with respect to new technologies in the domain of energy and hydrocarbon development; and

    (iii) suggesting improvements in fiscal management of the Institute.

     

    Appointment of the Director: 

    The Director of the Institute will be appointed by the central government.  The Director will be the principal academic and executive officer of the Institute.

     

    Funding: 

    The Institute will be required to maintain a fund which will be credited with the funds that it receives from the central government, fees and money received from any other sources (grants and gifts).  The accounts of the Institute shall be audited by the Comptroller and Auditor- General of India.

     

    Settlement of disputes: 

    Any dispute arising out of a contract between the Institute and any of its employees will be referred to an internally constituted Tribunal of Arbitration.  The Tribunal will consist of:

     

    (i) one member appointed by the Institute;

    (ii) one member nominated by the employee; and

    (iii) an umpire appointed by the Visitor (President of India).  The decision of the Tribunal of Arbitration will be considered final. In case of any dispute between the Institute and the central government, the decision of the central government will be considered final.

     

     E governance- applications.

     

    Fiber grid project

     


     

    Context: President Ram Nath Kovind recently dedicated the Andhra Pradesh Fibre Grid project which aims to provide on-demand affordable broadband connectivity.

     

    About the Fiber Grid Project:

     

    §  The project, in partnership with the government of India and the private sector, will provide internet speeds of 10 Mbps for all households and 1-10 Gbps for all institutions by 2018.

     

    §  The AP Fibre Grid was conceptualised to provide high-speed internet service to every household in the state at a nominal rate. The project, when completed by 2019, will cover over one crore households, 50,000 schools and educational institutions, all government offices, over 5,000 government hospitals and health centres and all panchayat offices.

     

    §  Andhra Pradesh State Fibernet Limited (APSFL), which is implementing the AP Fiber Grid project, will provide three services at tariffs starting as low as `149 for 5 GB data, along with 250-odd TV channels and a free telephone connection.

     

    §  Called triple play services, it includes broadband of 15 Mbps to households and 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps connection to government offices and corporates, IPTV offerings 250-odd channels and free telephone connection with no rentals and calls fee within fibre grid network.

     

    §  The fibre grid will also offer services like video-conferencing and movies on demand. The district command control centres, all public CCTVs, the AP State Wide Area Network will be integrated into the grid.

     

    Significance of the project:

    The project is expected boost digital literacy and skill development in the state, and provide citizen services on digital platform to every household. It also expected to facilitate setting up BPOs or call centres in rural areas.

     

    Animal rearing.

     

    LDF-Mobile App


     

     

    Context: 

    Union Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare has launched Livestock Disease Forewarning –Mobile Application (LDF-Mobile App).

     

    About the LDF-Mobile App:

    The app has been developed by ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease Informatics (ICAR-NIVEDI), Bengaluru. ICAR-NIVEDI uses Monthly Bulletin system to send out early warning.

     

    §  Apart from early warning, the app will also provide information about clinical samples for the diagnosis in case of the epidemic so that immediate action in case of the epidemic.

     

    §  This app will be beneficial for the consumers and stakeholders engaged in disease control programmes.

     



    Infrastructure.

     

    India’s first pod taxi on the way, to follow U.S. safety norms

     


     Context:

    The much-awaited India’s first pod taxi project- also known as Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)- has moved a step closer to reality after a high-level panel recommended inviting fresh bids for the same conforming to the strictest safety standards on the lines of those prescribed by an American body.

    The committee set up for technical and safety standards of PRT has recommended issuance of a fresh EOI (expression of interest) incorporating (automated people movers) APM standards and specifications, along with other general safety parameters with Niti Aayog recommendations.

     

    Proposed safety standards:

    The automated people mover (APM) standards in the US as recommended by the committee for the maiden PRT in India have been prepared by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and these constitute the minimum requirements for an acceptable level of safety and performance for the PRT. The APM standards include minimum requirements for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the various sub-systems of an APM system and are in general relevant for a PRT. These include vehicle arrival audio and video visual warning system, platform sloping, evacuation of misalighted vehicles, surveillance/CCTV, audio communication, emergency call points and fire protection, among other advanced systems.

     

    About the project:

    This pilot project will cover a stretch of 13 kilometres from the Gurugram-Delhi border to Badshapur Mod on Sohna Road with a total of 16 stations. For this, a budget of Rs 850 crore has been estimated. The feasibility report for the same has been submitted by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Every pod of Metrino taxi can accommodate up to five passengers.

     

    What is Personal rapid transit (PRT) network?

    Sized for individual or small group travel, personal rapid transit (PRT) is a transport mode combining small automated vehicles, known as pods, operating on a network of specially built guideways. The network consists of a number of stations or stops for passengers to get on and get off. The average speed of the pods is 60 kilometres per hour.

     

    Brief history of Personal rapid transit (PRT) network:

     

    §  The modern PRT concept began around 1953 when Donn Fichter, a city transportation planner, began research on PRT and alternative transportation methods

    §  In 1967, Aramis project, an experimental personal rapid transit system was started by aerospace giant Matra in Paris. The project was, however, cancelled when it failed its qualification trials in November 1987

    §  Between 1970 and 1978, Japan operated a project called “Computer-controlled Vehicle System” (CVS). In a full-scale test facility, 84 vehicles operated at speeds up to 60 kilometres per hour on a 4.8 kilometres guideway.

     

    Infrastructure- roadways.

     

    Government eyes 100% electric public transport through FAME II

     


     

    The Centre is targeting a fully electric fleet for country’s public transport, including buses, taxis and auto-rickshaws under the second phase of FAME India scheme. This move is mainly aimed at reducing pollution in the country.

     

    Background:

    The pilot phase or phase I of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles in India (FAME India) was launched by the government in 2015, which expires on March 31, 2018. Thereafter, the phase II will be launched.

     

    About FAME India scheme:

     

    What is it?

    With an aim to promote eco-friendly vehicles, the government had launched the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME-India) scheme in 2015.

     

    Aim:

    The FAME India Scheme is aimed at incentivising all vehicle segments, including two-wheelers, three wheeler auto, passenger four-wheeler vehicle, light commercial vehicles and buses. The scheme covers hybrid and electric technologies like a strong hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.

     

    Facts:

    FAME India – Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles in India – is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan. The scheme envisages Rs 795 crore support in the first two fiscals starting with the current year. It is being administered by the Heavy Industries Ministry.

     

    Facts for Prelims:

     

    Kabul-Mumbai cargo service on:

     

    India and Afghanistan have launched an air freight corridor service connecting Kabul with Mumbai. The air corridor marks an important bilateral development as it comes as Afghanistan joined Pakistan and China in a trilateral talk in Beijing which marked Kabul’s opening up to Islamabad.

     

    PIIGS:

     

    According to a research report by ratings agency CARE, the 9.85% ratio of bad loans in banks has put India in the group of those nations that have very high nonperforming assets (NPAs). The only major countries with similar ratios are the troubled EU nations: Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain — commonly referred to as PIIGS.

     


    Editorial: Countering growing inequality

     

     


    Context:

    Income inequality in India has reached historically high levels with the share of national income accruing to India’s top 1 per cent earners touching 22 per cent in 2014, while the share of the top 10 per cent was around 56 per cent, according to the World Inequality Report 2018 released.

     

    World Inequality Report 2018

    World Inequality Report is a report by the World Inequality Lab at the Paris School of Economics that provides estimates of global income and wealth inequality based on the most recent findings complied by the World Wealth and Income Database (WID).

    WID, also referred to as WID.world, is an open source database that is part of an international collaborative effortof over a hundred researchers in five continents.

    The World Inequality Report 2018 has brought into focus an aspect of economic progress in India. The reported finding that the top 1% of income earners received 6% of the total income in the early 1980s, close to 15% of it in 2000, and receives 22% in 2014.

     

    Trends in Global Income inequality

    Global income growth dynamics are driven by strong forces of convergence between countries and divergence within countries. Global dynamics are shaped by a variety of national institutional and political contexts.

     

    §  Since 1980, income inequality has increased rapidly in North America and Asia, grown moderately in Europe, and stabilized at an extremely high level in the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Brazil.

    §  The poorest half of the global population has seen its income grow significantly thanks to high growth in Asia. But the top 0.1% has captured as much growth as the bottom half of the world adult population since 1980.

    §  Income growth has been sluggish or even nil for individuals between the global bottom 50% and top 1%. This includes North American and European lower- and middle-income groups.

    §  The rise of global inequality has not been steady. While the global top 1% income share increased from 16% in 1980 to 22% in 2000, it declined slightly thereafter to 20%.

    §  In China, India, and Russia inequality surged with opening and liberalization policies.

     

    Income inequality in India

    Income inequality in India has reached historically high levels. In 2014, the share of national income accruing to India’s top 1% of earners was 22%, while the share of the top 10% was around 56%.

    §  Since the beginning of deregulation policies in the 1980s, the top 0.1% earners have captured more growth than all of those in the bottom 50% combined.

    §  The middle 40% have also seen relatively little growth in their incomes.

    §  Inequality rose from the mid-1980s after profound transformations of the economy. In the late seventies, India was recognised as a highly regulated, centralized economy with socialist planning. But from the 1980s onwards, a large set of liberalization and deregulation reforms were implemented.

    §  The structural changes to the economy along with changes in the regulation appear to have had significant impact on income inequality in India since the 1980s.

    §  Indian inequality was driven by the rise in very top incomes.

     

    Comparison between India and China

     

    In particular, the report enables a comparison of economic progress made in India and China. Comparison between China and India is meaningful as they had both been large agrarian economies at similar levels of per capita income when they had started out in the early 1950s. Moreover, the absence of democracy in a society does not by itself guarantee faster economic growth and greater income equality.

     

    §  Since 1980, while the Chinese economy has grown 800% and India’s a far lower 200%, inequality in China today is considerably lower than in India.

    §  The share of the top 1% of the Chinese population is 14% as opposed to the 22% reported for India. It is emphasised that growing inequality need not necessarily accompany faster growth, observing that inequality actually declined in China from the early 21st century.

    §  Post 1980s, inequality has risen in China and India. Inequality rose to extreme level in India and moderate level in China as China invested more in education, health and infrastructure for its bottom 50 per cent population.

    §  China has grown faster, has far lower poverty and far higher average income, and its income distribution is less unequal at the very top. The World Development Indicators data released by the World Bank show that per capita income in China was five times that of India in 2016 while the percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day was about 10 times less at the beginning of this decade.

    §  China had by the early 1970s achieved the level of schooling India did only by the early 21st century.

    §  The spread of health and education in that country enabled the Chinese economy to grow faster than India by exporting manufactures to the rest of the world. The resulting growth lifted vast multitudes out of poverty.

    §  As the human capital endowment was relatively equal, most people could share in this growth, which accounts for the relative equality of outcomes in China when compared to India.

    §  An ingredient of this is also the greater participation of women in the workforce of China, an outcome that eludes India.

     

    Democracy not a barrier to development

     

    India has lower per capita income, persistent poverty and by all accounts rising inequality. Democracy per se cannot be held responsible for this. There are States in India with superior social indicators than China. This shows that not only is democracy not a barrier to development but also that similar political institutions across India have not resulted in same development outcomes across its regions.

     

    Way forward

     

    There is need to spread health and education far more widely amidst the population.

     

    The role of progressive taxation is significant in tackling rising inequality at the top. At the same time, to tackle inequality at the bottom there is a need for more equal access to education and good paying jobs.

     

    Government need to invest more in the future (education and health), both to address current income and wealth inequality levels and to prevent further increases.


     

     







































































































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