Daily Current Affairs – 28 December
Editorial: Power of the collective
or intimate partner violence (IPV) as it is sometimes called, is a worldwide
problem. Intimate partner violence is referred as a threatened physical,
sexual, financial or emotional abuse of a woman by their intimate partner.
in India includes any form of violence suffered by a person from a biological
relative, but typically is the violence suffered by a woman by male members of
her family or relatives.
The greed for
dowry, desire for a male child and alcoholism of the spouse are major factors
of domestic violence against women in rural areas.
IPV in India
or IPV is currently defined in India by the Protection of Women from
Domestic Violence Act of 2005.
A 2014 study in The Lancet reports that the reported
sexual violence rate in India is among the lowest in the world, the large
population of India means that the violence affects 27·5 million over women
their lifetime. The instance of violence was reported to be lowest among
Buddhist and Jain women, and highest among Muslim women in India.
According to United Nation Population Fund Report,
around two-third of married Indian women are victims of domestic violence and
as many as 70 per cent of married women in India between the age of 15 and 49
are victims of beating, rape or forced sex.
In India, more than 55 percent of the women suffer from
domestic violence, especially in the states of Bihar, U.P., M.P. and other
Physical injury is the most visible form of
domestic/Intimate partner violence.
Emotional abuse has been gaining more and more
recognition in recent years as an incredibly common form of domestic violence
within the private home throughout developing nations such as India.
Most of the risk factors for intimate partner violence
identified in slums appear to be similar to those identified in non-slum
settings in India. For example, women’s employment has been found to be a risk
factor for intimate partner violence in both slums and non-slum settings in
In Indian families with patriarchal norms, women with
higher income or status relative to their partners are more likely to be seen
as gender deviant and to face violence (NFHS).
In Indian families with patriarchal norms, women with
higher income or status relative to their partners are more likely to be seen
as gender deviant and to face violence.
Domestic violence on Women’s’ Health
In a study
conducted in India reported that women with a lifetime history of IPV were more
likely to have reported poorer physical and mental health compared to those
without a lifetime history of IPV.
Violence against women is a significant public health
problem in India with prevalence estimates ranging from 6 per cent in one State
(e. Himachal Pradesh) to 59 per cent in another
In the National Family Health Survey, the prevalence of
violence against married women in various slum areas in India was reported to
be between 23 and 62 per cent.
The factors associated with intimate partner violence
were early marriage, husband’s alcohol use, women’s employment, and
justification of wife beating.
Norms related to gender
roles, community attitudes and the broader social context, including the media,
play a significant role in the acceptance and promotion of intimate partner
Self-Help groups to address IPV
address IPV have included legal reforms, awareness creation drives, and
strengthening of women’s civil rights. As criminal justice solutions have
largely been inaccessible to socially precarious women, a more inclusive
alternative is to have collective-based resolution mechanisms. The potential of
large-scale groups of women, such as self-help groups (SHGs), becomes
critical in the Indian context.
Many models of community dispute resolution
mechanisms have been experimented in India like,
The Nari Adalats (women courts) in various States,
Women’s Resource Centres (Rajasthan),
Shalishi (West Bengal), and
Mahila Panchayats (Delhi)
seen IPV as a public issue rather than a personal problem.
Several NGOs have co-opted these models so that women can
resolve cases of violence without getting entangled in tedious legal processes.
SHGs are the most widely present collectives across
regions. The experiences of large-scale programmes offer valuable insights into
action for IPV redressal within SHG-led development models.
Collectives of women need adequate investment for
building their capacities and mediation of IPV requires specialised
structures to avoid manipulation by kinship relations and political
women is an extreme manifestation of gender inequality in society and a
serious violation of fundamental human rights.
Not all groups of
women become safe spaces to discuss violence. SHGs must first become
enabling spaces where the economic and social concerns of women are stated
violence must be stated as a necessary component of empowerment.
It takes time for
most women to recognise that violence is unacceptable. To enable them to
understand this, there must be investment in specific training, and gender
SHGs are mostly
seen as administrative entities. Their social role can be enhanced to
tackle the widespread problem of IPV.
to become 5th-largest economy in - 2018
inaugurated conference at Acharya Nagarjuna University on - 27th December
satellite lost after being set to launch from wrong spaceport on - 27th
Sabha passed GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017 on - 27th
to become 5th-largest economy in – 2018
India will be the
world's 5th-largest economy in terms of dollar by the coming year 2018.
The Centre for Economics and Business
Research consultancy’s 2018 World Economic League Table decorated
an upbeat view of the global wealth, increased by low-prices energy and
Deputy Chairman of CEBR, Douglas McWilliams informed that in spite of temporary
setbacks, India's wealth has still caught up with that of France and the
United Kingdom and in the coming year it will surpass both of them.
inaugurated conference at Acharya Nagarjuna University on - 27th December 2017
President Ram Nath Kovind officially
inaugurated the Annual Conference of Indian Economic Association at
Acharya Nagarjuna University area on 27th December 2017 in
Indian Economic Association is a registered organization of Indian economic
professionals, accepted way back in year 1917, with the aim of
contributing a forum for talks and conversations of policy-oriented matters.
The Association presently has more than 5000 subscribers, both individual
Chief Minister N Chandrababu Naidu congratulated the President at the
program. Talking on this event, Mr Kovind said that India is one of the
quickest increasing economies in the world.
The resourceful policy making is required to handle the various
discriminations in our society.
satellite lost after being set to launch from wrong spaceport on - 27th
Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin
on Wednesday 27th December 2017 informed the loss of a $45m satellite
initiated previous month was due to an embarrassing programming mistake.
Russian space agency Roscosmos informed last month that they had lost
communication with the freshly released weather satellite “the Meteor-M”
after it propelled from Russia’s new Vostochny cosmodrome in the nation’s
Talking to Rossiya 24 state TV channel,
Rogozin informed that the non-success had been happened due to a human
mistake. The rocket carrying the satellites had been scheduled with the wrong
Rogozin further informed that the rocket was really scheduled as if it was
taking off from Baikonur. They did not receive the coordinates accurate.
rocket was taking 18 smaller satellites related to scientific, research and
business companies from Russia, the US, Japan, Canada, Norway, Sweden and
April past year, after retard and huge costs overruns, Russia initiated its 1st
rocket from Vostochny, a day after a technical glitch pushed an
embarrassing deferment of the program in the presence of the
president, Vladimir Putin.
Sabha passed GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017 on - 27th
The Lok Sabha on 27th December 2017 approved
the GST (Compensation to States) Amendment Bill, 2017. The Bill is focused
at rising the tax on luxury vehicles from 15% to 25%.
The Bill was approved amid disorder by the opposition over controversial
statements made by Union Minister Anant Kumar Hegde on secularism and the
Constitution. The Bill looks forward to substitute the Ordinance released
in September 2017 to give effect to the resolution of the GST Council. The
Ordinance issuing for a rise in the GST cess on cars ranging from mid-size to hybrid
and the luxury cars to 25%.
The funds gathered after hike in cess on
luxury vehicles will be utilized to reimburse states for revenue loss
on account of execution of the Goods and Services Tax. The Bill was
presented in Lok Sabha by Arun Jaitley on 22nd December 2017.
Did you know?
The Act helps the central government to inform the rate of the Goods and
Services Tax Compensation Cess on items including pan masala, coal,
aerated soft drinks, and tobacco, subject to certain caps. The amount collected
by levying the GST.
Role of women and
The government has
introduced in the Lok Sabha the much talked-about Muslim Women (Protection of
Rights on Marriage) Bill, which seeks to criminalise the practice of instant
triple talaq (or ‘talaq-e-biddat’).
of the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill:
The Bill seeks to prohibit “any pronouncement (of
divorce) by a person upon his wife by words, either spoken or written or in
electronic form, or in any other manner”.
The proposed law seeks to make triple talaq a punishable
offence and describes the practice as against “constitutional morality” and
“gender equity”. Anyone who pronounces instant divorce “shall be punished with
imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and a fine”, the bill
As per the provisions of the Bill, the husband could also
be fined and the quantum of fine would be decided by the magistrate hearing the
The proposed law will be applicable only to instant
triple talaq and will empower the victim to approach a magistrate seeking
“subsistence allowance” for herself and minor children. The woman can also seek
the custody of her minor children from the magistrate who will take a final
call on the issue.
The Supreme Court
had termed the practice of instant triple talaq unconstitutional while
considering a petition to that effect. The then CJI J S Khehar had directed the
government to bring in a legislation in this regard.
clerics and Muslim organisations have opposed the Bill, terming the
government’s stand as “uncalled for interference” in the personal laws of the
community. The All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) opposed the
legislation holding it against the Sharia law and may potentially destroy
families if made into a law.
Development processes and the development industry the
role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities,
institutional and other stakeholders.
National Children’s Science Congress
Context: The 25th
edition of National Children Science Congress (NCSC-2017) was recently
held Gandhinagar, Gujarat.
The theme of the
five-day Congress this was ‘Science and Innovation for Sustainable Development’
with the special focus on persons with disabilities.
National Children’s Science Congress:
What is it? National
Children’s Science Congress (NCSC) is a nationwide Science Communication
programme started in the year 1993. It is a programme of National Council for
Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department of Science and
Technology, Government of India organised nationally by NCSTC-Network, New
Objectives: The primary
objective of the Children’s Science Congress is to make a forum available to
children of the age-group of 10-17 years, both from formal school system as
well as from out of school, to exhibit their creativity and innovativeness and
more particularly their ability to solve a societal problem experienced locally
using the method of science.
Significance: The Children’s
Science Congress encourages a sense of discovery. It emboldens the participants
to question many aspects of our progress and development and express their
findings in their vernacular.
Government policies and interventions for development in
various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Institute of Petroleum and Energy Bill, 2017
The Parliament has
passed the Indian Institute of Petroleum and Energy Bill, 2017.
of the Bill:
national importance: The Bill establishes the Indian Institute of
Petroleum and Energy, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It declares the
Institute as an institution of national importance. The Institute aims to
provide high quality education and research focussing on the themes of
petroleum, hydrocarbons and energy.
Authorities of the
Institute: The key authorities of the Institute are as
(i) the General
(ii) the Board of
(iii) the Senate;
(iv) any other
authorities declared by the statutes.
powers of the Board of Governors: The Board of Governors
will comprise 13 members including:
(i) the President
(to be appointed by the central government);
(ii) the Director
of the Institute;
(iii) two persons
from the Board of Directors of companies that contribute to the Institute’s
endowment fund (to be nominated by the central government);
(iv) five eminent
experts in the field of petroleum technology and energy; and
(v) two professors
of the Institute.
Powers of the
Board of Governors include:
courses of study and laying down standards of proficiency and other academic
proposals for taking loans for the Institute;
academic, administrative, technical and other posts; and
(iv) fixing fees
and other charges.
powers of the General Council: The Council will
comprise up to 20 members including the:
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (Chairman); (ii) Chairman, Indian Oil
Oil Industry Development Board; and
Advisor (Energy), NITI Aayog.
The powers of the
(i) reviewing the
broad policies and programmes of the Institute; (ii) advising the Board with
respect to new technologies in the domain of energy and hydrocarbon
improvements in fiscal management of the Institute.
Appointment of the
The Director of
the Institute will be appointed by the central government. The Director
will be the principal academic and executive officer of the Institute.
The Institute will
be required to maintain a fund which will be credited with the funds that it
receives from the central government, fees and money received from any other
sources (grants and gifts). The accounts of the Institute shall be
audited by the Comptroller and Auditor- General of India.
arising out of a contract between the Institute and any of its employees will
be referred to an internally constituted Tribunal of Arbitration. The
Tribunal will consist of:
(i) one member
appointed by the Institute;
(ii) one member
nominated by the employee; and
(iii) an umpire
appointed by the Visitor (President of India). The decision of the
Tribunal of Arbitration will be considered final. In case of any dispute
between the Institute and the central government, the decision of the central
government will be considered final.
E governance- applications.
Context: President Ram
Nath Kovind recently dedicated the Andhra Pradesh Fibre Grid project which aims
to provide on-demand affordable broadband connectivity.
Fiber Grid Project:
The project, in partnership with the government of India
and the private sector, will provide internet speeds of 10 Mbps for all
households and 1-10 Gbps for all institutions by 2018.
The AP Fibre Grid was conceptualised to provide
high-speed internet service to every household in the state at a nominal rate.
The project, when completed by 2019, will cover over one crore households,
50,000 schools and educational institutions, all government offices, over 5,000
government hospitals and health centres and all panchayat offices.
Andhra Pradesh State Fibernet Limited (APSFL), which is
implementing the AP Fiber Grid project, will provide three services at tariffs
starting as low as `149 for 5 GB data, along with 250-odd TV channels and a
free telephone connection.
Called triple play services, it includes broadband of 15
Mbps to households and 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps connection to government offices and
corporates, IPTV offerings 250-odd channels and free telephone connection with
no rentals and calls fee within fibre grid network.
The fibre grid will also offer services like
video-conferencing and movies on demand. The district command control centres,
all public CCTVs, the AP State Wide Area Network will be integrated into the
of the project:
The project is
expected boost digital literacy and skill development in the state, and provide
citizen services on digital platform to every household. It also expected to
facilitate setting up BPOs or call centres in rural areas.
Union Ministry of
Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare has launched Livestock Disease Forewarning
–Mobile Application (LDF-Mobile App).
The app has been
developed by ICAR-National Institute of Veterinary Epidemiology and Disease
Informatics (ICAR-NIVEDI), Bengaluru. ICAR-NIVEDI uses Monthly Bulletin system
to send out early warning.
Apart from early warning, the app will also provide information
about clinical samples for the diagnosis in case of the epidemic so that
immediate action in case of the epidemic.
This app will be beneficial for the consumers and
stakeholders engaged in disease control programmes.
pod taxi on the way, to follow U.S. safety norms
India’s first pod taxi project- also known as Personal Rapid Transit (PRT)- has
moved a step closer to reality after a high-level panel recommended inviting
fresh bids for the same conforming to the strictest safety standards on the
lines of those prescribed by an American body.
The committee set
up for technical and safety standards of PRT has recommended issuance of a
fresh EOI (expression of interest) incorporating (automated people movers) APM
standards and specifications, along with other general safety parameters with
Niti Aayog recommendations.
people mover (APM) standards in the US as recommended by the committee for the
maiden PRT in India have been prepared by the American Society of Civil
Engineers (ASCE) and these constitute the minimum requirements for an
acceptable level of safety and performance for the PRT. The APM standards
include minimum requirements for the design, construction, operation and
maintenance of the various sub-systems of an APM system and are in general
relevant for a PRT. These include vehicle arrival audio and video visual
warning system, platform sloping, evacuation of misalighted vehicles,
surveillance/CCTV, audio communication, emergency call points and fire
protection, among other advanced systems.
This pilot project
will cover a stretch of 13 kilometres from the Gurugram-Delhi border to
Badshapur Mod on Sohna Road with a total of 16 stations. For this, a budget of
Rs 850 crore has been estimated. The feasibility report for the same has been
submitted by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Every pod of
Metrino taxi can accommodate up to five passengers.
Personal rapid transit (PRT) network?
individual or small group travel, personal rapid transit (PRT) is a transport
mode combining small automated vehicles, known as pods, operating on a network
of specially built guideways. The network consists of a number of stations or
stops for passengers to get on and get off. The average speed of the pods is 60
kilometres per hour.
history of Personal rapid transit (PRT) network:
The modern PRT concept began around 1953 when Donn
Fichter, a city transportation planner, began research on PRT and alternative
In 1967, Aramis project, an experimental personal rapid
transit system was started by aerospace giant Matra in Paris. The project was,
however, cancelled when it failed its qualification trials in November 1987
Between 1970 and 1978, Japan operated a project called
“Computer-controlled Vehicle System” (CVS). In a full-scale test facility, 84
vehicles operated at speeds up to 60 kilometres per hour on a 4.8 kilometres
eyes 100% electric public transport through FAME II
The Centre is
targeting a fully electric fleet for country’s public transport, including
buses, taxis and auto-rickshaws under the second phase of FAME India scheme.
This move is mainly aimed at reducing pollution in the country.
The pilot phase or
phase I of the Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric
vehicles in India (FAME India) was launched by the government in 2015, which
expires on March 31, 2018. Thereafter, the phase II will be launched.
What is it?
With an aim to
promote eco-friendly vehicles, the government had launched the Faster Adoption
and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles in India (FAME-India)
scheme in 2015.
The FAME India
Scheme is aimed at incentivising all vehicle segments, including two-wheelers,
three wheeler auto, passenger four-wheeler vehicle, light commercial vehicles
and buses. The scheme covers hybrid and electric technologies like a strong
hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles.
FAME India –
Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric vehicles in India –
is a part of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan. The scheme
envisages Rs 795 crore support in the first two fiscals starting with the
current year. It is being administered by the Heavy Industries Ministry.
Facts for Prelims:
Kabul-Mumbai cargo service on:
Afghanistan have launched an air freight corridor service connecting Kabul with
Mumbai. The air corridor marks an important bilateral development as it comes
as Afghanistan joined Pakistan and China in a trilateral talk in Beijing which
marked Kabul’s opening up to Islamabad.
According to a
research report by ratings agency CARE, the 9.85% ratio of bad loans in banks
has put India in the group of those nations that have very high nonperforming
assets (NPAs). The only major countries with similar ratios are the troubled EU
nations: Portugal, Italy, Ireland, Greece and Spain — commonly referred to
Editorial: Countering growing inequality
Income inequality in India has reached historically high levels
with the share of national income accruing to India’s top 1 per cent
earners touching 22 per cent in 2014, while the share of the top 10 per cent
was around 56 per cent, according to the World Inequality Report 2018 released.
Inequality Report 2018
World Inequality Report is a report by the World Inequality
Lab at the Paris School
of Economics that provides estimates of global income and
wealth inequality based on the most recent findings complied by the World
Wealth and Income Database (WID).
WID, also referred to as WID.world, is an open source
database that is part of an international collaborative effortof over a hundred
researchers in five continents.
The World Inequality Report 2018 has brought into focus an aspect
of economic progress in India. The reported finding that the top 1% of income
earners received 6% of the total income in the early 1980s, close to 15% of it
in 2000, and receives 22% in 2014.
in Global Income inequality
Global income growth dynamics are driven by strong forces of
convergence between countries and divergence within countries. Global dynamics
are shaped by a variety of national institutional and political contexts.
§ Since 1980, income inequality has increased rapidly in
North America and Asia, grown moderately in Europe, and stabilized at an
extremely high level in the Middle East, sub-Saharan Africa, and Brazil.
§ The poorest half of the global population has seen its
income grow significantly thanks to high growth in Asia. But the top 0.1% has
captured as much growth as the bottom half of the world adult population since
§ Income growth has been sluggish or even nil for
individuals between the global bottom 50% and top 1%. This includes North
American and European lower- and middle-income groups.
§ The rise of global inequality has not been steady. While
the global top 1% income share increased from 16% in 1980 to 22% in 2000, it
declined slightly thereafter to 20%.
§ In China, India, and Russia inequality surged with opening
and liberalization policies.
inequality in India
Income inequality in India has reached historically high levels.
In 2014, the share of national income accruing to India’s top 1% of earners was
22%, while the share of the top 10% was around 56%.
§ Since the beginning of deregulation policies in the 1980s,
the top 0.1% earners have captured more growth than all of those in the bottom
§ The middle 40% have also seen relatively little growth in
§ Inequality rose from the mid-1980s after profound
transformations of the economy. In the late seventies, India was
recognised as a highly regulated, centralized economy with socialist planning.
But from the 1980s onwards, a large set of liberalization and deregulation
reforms were implemented.
§ The structural changes to the economy along with changes
in the regulation appear to have had significant impact on income inequality in
India since the 1980s.
§ Indian inequality was driven by the rise in very top
between India and China
In particular, the report
enables a comparison of economic progress made in India and China. Comparison
between China and India is meaningful as they had both been large agrarian
economies at similar levels of per capita income when they had started out in
the early 1950s. Moreover, the absence of democracy in a society does not by
itself guarantee faster economic growth and greater income equality.
§ Since 1980, while the Chinese economy has grown 800% and
India’s a far lower 200%, inequality in China today is considerably lower than
§ The share of the top 1% of the Chinese population is 14%
as opposed to the 22% reported for India. It is emphasised that growing
inequality need not necessarily accompany faster growth, observing that
inequality actually declined in China from the early 21st century.
§ Post 1980s, inequality has risen in China and India.
Inequality rose to extreme level in India and moderate level in China as China
invested more in education, health and infrastructure for its bottom 50 per
§ China has grown faster, has far lower poverty and far
higher average income, and its income distribution is less unequal at the very
top. The World Development Indicators data released by the World Bank show that
per capita income in China was five times that of India in 2016 while the
percentage of the population living on less than $1.90 a day was about 10 times
less at the beginning of this decade.
§ China had by the early 1970s achieved the level of
schooling India did only by the early 21st century.
§ The spread of health and education in that country enabled
the Chinese economy to grow faster than India by exporting manufactures to the
rest of the world. The resulting growth lifted vast multitudes out of poverty.
§ As the human capital endowment was relatively equal, most
people could share in this growth, which accounts for the relative equality of
outcomes in China when compared to India.
§ An ingredient of this is also the greater
participation of women in the workforce of China, an outcome that eludes India.
not a barrier to development
India has lower per capita
income, persistent poverty and by all accounts rising inequality. Democracy per
se cannot be held responsible for this. There are States in India with superior
social indicators than China. This shows that not only is democracy not a
barrier to development but also that similar political institutions across
India have not resulted in same development outcomes across its regions.
There is need to spread health
and education far more widely amidst the population.
The role of progressive
taxation is significant in tackling rising inequality at the top. At the same
time, to tackle inequality at the bottom there is a need for more equal access
to education and good paying jobs.
Government need to invest more
in the future (education and health), both to address current income and wealth
inequality levels and to prevent further increases.
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