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                                                                         Current Affairs, 12 December 2017


    Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.




    India is hosting the 2017 edition of “Bodhi Parva: BIMSTEC Festival of Buddhist Heritage” in New Delhi as part of celebrations of 20th Anniversary of BIMSTEC. The festival is organized by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) along with Teamwork Arts.


    Why This Festival?
    To emphasise and raise awareness of this rich and common heritage and mark the 20th anniversary of this unique organisation group, a BIMSTEC Buddhism Festival ‘’Bodhi Parva: BIMSTEC Festival of Buddhist Heritage” has been presented by the BIMSTEC division of the Ministry of External Affairs and produced by Teamwork Arts.
    A mélange of international performances, films, art, chanting, meditation and philosophical dialogues by known practitioners and scholars will bring out the essence of Buddhism. The universal message of peace and tolerance practiced by Buddhism can address the growing sense of inadequacy in the face of changes and conflicts that people and the world face.


    About Bodhi Parva:

    ‘’Bodhi Parva: BIMSTEC Buddhist Heritage Festival” aims to look at the different aspects of Buddhism, in today’s context. BIMSTEC has a deep connect with Buddhism, which originated in South Asia and then travelled and rooted itself in South East Asia. Buddhism constitutes a bridge between South and South-East Asia.


    About BIMSTEC:

    The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organization involving a group of countries in South Asia and South East Asia. The BIMSTEC comprises of seven countries, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Thailand.
    The main objective of BIMSTEC is technological and economical cooperation among South Asian and South East Asian countries along the coast of the Bay of Bengal. The headquarters of BIMSTEC is in Dhaka.


    Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

    27th Vyas Samman


    Eminent Hindi writer Mamta Kalia will be honoured with literary award Vyas Samman for year 2017 for her novel “Dukkham Sukkham”. The author has earlier received “Yashpal Katha Samman” from Uttar Pradesh Hindi Sansthan, “Sahitya Bhushan Samman” and “Ram Manohar Lohia Samman”.

    About Vyas Samman awards- facts:

    • The Vyas Samman is given to a Hindi literary work published in the past 10 years.
    • Eminent literary critic and poet Ram Vilas Sharma is the first recipient of this award in 1991.
    • The writer will receive an amount of Rs 3.5 lakh as the prize money.
    • It is awarded annually by the K.K. Birla Foundation.


    Role of women and women’s organization.


    Triple talaq draft bill




    Uttar Pradesh has become the first state to endorse the centre’s draft bill that makes instant triple talaq a cognisable and non-bailable offence.


    The Supreme Court had on August 22 struck down triple talaq, calling the practice unconstitutional and in violation of Article 14 of the Constitution, which provides for equality before the law. Following this, the Centre came out with the draft Bill on triple talaq. It has been endorsed by the Cabinet. Since marriage and divorce are subjects that fall under the concurrent list of the Constitution, the law ministry has also written to state governments seeking their views “urgently” on the proposed legislation.


    What is triple talaq?
    Talaq-e-biddat is a custom under Muslim personal law that allows a man to divorce his wife by uttering the word “talaq” thrice.

    Key features of the Draft ‘Muslim Women Protection of Rights on Marriage Bill’:
    • As per the draft, tripe talaq or talaq-e-biddat will be a “cognisable and non-bailable” offence punishable with three years imprisonment and the wife will be entitled to maintenance and the custody of children if they are minor.
    • The proposed law would only be applicable on instant triple talaq or ‘talaq-e-biddat’ and it would give power to the victim to approach a magistrate seeking “subsistence allowance” for herself and minor children. The woman can also seek the custody of her minor children from the magistrate who will take a final call on the issue.
    • Under the draft law, triple talaq in any form — spoken, in writing or by electronic means such as email, SMS and WhatsApp — would be bad or illegal and void.
    • The provision of subsistence allowance and custody has been made to ensure that in case the husband asks the wife to leave the house she should have legal protection.

    Sources: the hindu.


    Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc.

    Solar wind flows



    A group of researchers from Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad, have, for the first time, figured out the conditions under which certain types of solar storms can flow towards the earth and affect its atmosphere.


    What are solar storms?
    Solar storms are violent events on the sun which can temporarily distort the earth’s magnetosphere – the region around the earth which is influenced by its magnetic field.


    Effects of solar storms:
    These temporary disturbances, called geomagnetic storms, can generate shock waves in the interplanetary medium that can accelerate charged particles to very high energies and which, in turn, can harm the satellites placed by humans in space.

    Such solar storms have two causes: Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIR).
    CMEs are huge explosions of charged particles extending beyond the sun’s corona or outer layer and can be visibly observed. CMEs can be detected by a coronagraph when they are ejected from the Sun.
    CIRs: Charged particles are being spewed continually out of the sun’s corona, forming the solar wind. Some parts of these winds move faster than others. Since they contain charged particles in a plasma state, these different regions physically interact with each other to form wavelike disturbances called CIRs that emanate from the sun and spiral outwards. CIRs are generated in the interplanetary medium and there are no visual signatures for CIRs. They are called “corotating” interaction regions as they rotate along with the sun, attached to it at one end.


    Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI)


    Context: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI) has notified the regulations for handling of grievances and complaints against Insolvency-related service providers.

    • The regulations enable a stakeholder, namely, debtor, creditor, claimant, service provider, resolution applicant or any other person having an interest in an insolvency resolution, liquidation or bankruptcy transaction to file a grievance or a complaint against service provider.
    • The service provider could be an insolvency professional agency, Insolvency professional, Insolvency professional entity or information utility.
    • The regulations provide for an objective and transparent procedure for disposal of grievances and complaints by the IBBI. The regulations do not spare a mischievous service provider. At the same time, they don’t also harass an innocent service provider.


    About IBBI:

    What is it?
    Insolvency and Bankruptcy Board of India was set up on 1st October 2016 under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016 (Code). It is a unique regulator: regulates a profession as well as transactions.

    • It has regulatory oversight over the Insolvency Professionals, Insolvency Professional Agencies and Information Utilities.
    • It writes and enforces rules for transactions, namely, corporate insolvency resolution, corporate liquidation, individual insolvency resolution and individual bankruptcy under the Code.
    • It is a key pillar of the ecosystem responsible for implementation of the Code that consolidates and amends the laws relating to reorganization and insolvency resolution of corporate persons, partnership firms and individuals.
    • This is done in a time bound manner for maximization of the value of assets of such persons, to promote entrepreneurship, availability of credit and balance the interests of all the stakeholders.

    Organizational structure of IBBI:
    The IBBI has a ten-member board including a Chairman. Following is the structure of the IBBI:
    • One Chairperson.
    • Three members from Central Government officers not below the rank of Joint Secretary or equivalent.
    • One nominated member from the RBI.
    • Five members nominated by the Central Government; of these, three shall be whole-time members.


    Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

    Why are there disparities between States on diseases?



    Context: The India State-Level Disease Burden report, a first-of-its-kind assessment of causes for diseases in each State from 1990 to 2016, was released recently. The report is the result of two years of intense scientific work and collaborative effort. The Global Burden of Disease methodology was used for this analysis, which is the most widely used disease burden estimation approach globally.

    Worrying trends:
    • Scientists evaluated the diseases causing the most premature deaths and ill-health in each State. They found out that life expectancy at birth in the country has improved significantly. However, the report indicated many health inequalities among States.
    • The report notes that while there was a fall in the under-five mortality in every State there was also a four-fold difference in the rate of improvement among them. The per person burden from many of the leading infectious and non-communicable diseases varied 5-10 times between States.
    • This can be attributed to differences in the development status, environment, lifestyle patterns, preventive health measures and curative health services between the States. In the most developed States this transition took place about 30 years ago, but in the poorest States this transition has taken place only over the past few years.

    Who suffers most?
    Infectious and childhood diseases continue to be significant problems in the poor Empowered Action Group States of north India (Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand and Assam), which still contributes 37-43% of the total disease burden. These diseases are responsible for the inordinately high burden of premature deaths and morbidity suffered by children under five years of age in these States.
    The results show that non-communicable disease and injuries have together overtaken infectious and childhood diseases in terms of disease burden in every State, but the magnitude of this transition varies markedly between the poor States and the more developed States.

    Usefulness of this report:

    The India State-Level Disease Burden Initiative will update estimates annually for each State based on new data that become available. It will also provide more detailed findings: for example, next year it plans to report the rural-urban differences in disease burden for each State. Detailed topic-specific reports and publications will be produced for major diseases and risk factors for deeper insights to plan their control.
    The policy applications of these findings include planning of State health budgets, prioritisation of interventions relevant to each State, informing the government’s Health Assurance Mission in each State, monitoring of health-related Sustainable Development Goals targets, and assessing the impact of large-scale interventions based on time trends of disease burden. In addition, the data gaps identified in this estimation process will inform which areas of the health information system of India need to be strengthened.

    Way ahead:

    The report should be used as an important tool for health planners in India to improve health of the people more effectively.


    Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

    One nation, one education board




    A three-judge Bench of the Supreme Court has dismissed a petition which sought for “one nation, one education board” to end disparity in knowledge dissemination during the formative years of a child.


    Need for a single education board:
    The fundamental right to free and compulsory education under Article 21A includes a common education system where the “rich and the poor are educated under one roof.” However, the current education system under multiple boards did not provide equal opportunity to all.


    The 2011 judgment:
    Supreme Court’s dismissal of this petition is in contrast to a 2011 judgment by the Panchal Bench in the Tamil Nadu and Others versus K. Shyam Sunder and Others. In 2011, a three-judge Bench of the Supreme Court, in an appeal filed by the Tamil Nadu government, had held that a common syllabus, especially for children aged between six and 14, would achieve the “code of common culture.”
    The 2011 judgment had held that the “right of a child should not be restricted only to free and compulsory education, but should be extended to have quality education without any discrimination on the ground of their economic, social and cultural background.” The court had also observed that Separate education facilities are inherently unequal and violate the doctrine of equality.


    Tamil Nadu’s case:
    In August 2011, Tamil Nadu became the first Indian state to have a common syllabus, textbooks and examinations. Prior to that, schools in the state were following four boards—the state board, Matriculation board, Oriental board, and the Anglo-Indian board. While the proposal was mooted a few years ago, the government managed to merge the four boards after a long legal battle. ‘Samacheer Kalvi’ as the common curriculum board is called is framed on the lines of National Curriculum Framework. This, however, does not include national boards like the CBSE and ICSE. While this was the first initiative of its kind, its success is yet to be measured in qualitative terms.


    Way ahead:
    The constitution of the new board requires a lot of thought and planning. The first concern is that the very credibility of our internal assessment is so low that how does one judge students? Moreover the heterogeneity of our schools – while some schools have the best of facilities and teachers, a large number of them don’t even have blackboards – is a huge impediment in standardisation of education. It is a good move, but there has to be some kind of assessment of the progress made by both the student and the school.


    Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.


    ICAN receives Nobel Peace Prize



    The International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (Ican) has received the Nobel Peace Prize. The leader of an Australian-founded group that received the Nobel Peace Prize has warned humanity is only “one impulsive tantrum” away from a nuclear catastrophe. ICAN had campaigned for a UN Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.


    About Ican:
    Ican, a coalition of hundreds of non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is 10 years old and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. Ican set about an alternative approach – to raise popular awareness of the issue and to pressure governments to open up a new treaty for signature earlier this year that would seek an outright ban on nuclear weapons.
    In July, after pressure from Ican, 122 nations backed a UN treaty designed to ban and eventually eliminate all nuclear weapons. But none of the nine known nuclear powers in the world – including the UK and the US – endorsed it.


    Facts for Prelims:


    India’s first energy-efficient railway station:
    Kacheguda has earned the distinction of being the first energy-efficient ‘A1 Category’ railway station in the country. Kacheguda railway station has achieved 100% energy efficiency by replacing 1,312 conventional lights with light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, 370 ceiling fans with Brushless DC Electrical (BLDC) motors energy-efficient fans and 12 air conditioners with energy efficient inverter type ACs.
    Kacheguda Railway station is a historic building and had completed 100 years. Situated in the heart of Hyderabad, it was built in 1916 by the Nizam’s Guaranteed State Railway during the reign of Mir Osman Ali Khan, the seventh Nizam.


    Unable to see the bamboo for the trees



    Centre promulgated Indian Forest (Amendment) Ordinance to encourage bamboo cultivation in non-forest areas.  Centre to “de-regulate” bamboo production by amending the definition of “trees” under the Indian Forest Act (IFA), 1927.

    The ordinance exempts bamboo grown in non-forest areas from the definition of tree, thereby dispensing with the requirement of felling and transit permit for its economic use.

    Bamboo grown in the forest areas shall continue to be governed by the provisions of Indian Forest Act.


    Why was the amendment promulgated?

    Bamboo, though, taxonomically a grass, was legally defined as a tree under the Indian Forest Act, 1927.  

    Before this amendment, the felling and transit of bamboo grown on forest as well as non-forest land attracted the provisions of the Indian Forest Act and was a major impediment for bamboo cultivation by farmers on non-forest land.  

    In November 2017, the Central government issued an ordinance whereby “bamboo” was deleted from the clause that defines “trees” in the IFA.

    Indian Forest Act, 1927

    The Indian Forest Act, 1927 was largely based on previous Indian Forest Acts implemented under the British. The most famous one was the Indian Forest Act of 1878.

    §  Both the 1878 act and the 1927 one sought to consolidate and reserve the areas having forest cover, or significant wildlife, to regulate movement and transit of forest produce, and duty leviable on timberand other forest produce.

    §  It also defines the procedure to be followed for declaring an area to be a Reserved Forest, a Protected Forest or a Village Forest.

    §  It defines what a forest offence is, what are the acts prohibited inside a Reserved Forest, and penalties leviable on violation of the provisions of the Act.

    The British mis-definition was a blatant appropriation of people’s resources. By including bamboo under trees(Section 2(7)), and felled trees under timber (Section 2(6)), and timber in forest produce (Section 2(4)(a)) regardless of its origin, the British established state control on all tree and bamboo growth.

    Felling, sale and transport of any of these species then required state permission. Post-independence India continued this policy.

    Removing bamboo from “trees” amounts to removing it from state control, and should be a huge step in favour of restoring people’s rights.

    The Impediments

    1.        Multiple laws and caveats

    Most States have passed their own forest Acts and Rules.

    §  Many have also passed other Acts that, for instance, regulate tree felling outside forest areas, such as the Karnataka Preservation of Trees Act, 1976, or regulate the movement of forest produce, such as the Madhya Pradesh Van Upaj (Vyapar Viniyaman) Adhiniyam 1969.

    §  Each of these Acts and Rules defines forest produce and trees, and includes bamboo in them.

    Amending the IFA does not affect these State laws and, therefore, changes little on the ground.


    1.        Point of ownership

    The bulk of bamboo in the country today is on forest lands. But “forest lands” is an umbrella term that includes, for instance, community forest lands in Northeast India. Following the Supreme Court’s Godavarman judgment, tree harvest in all these lands is regulated by the forest department.

    The question is whether the amendment also covers bamboo grown on these lands.


    §  Bamboo forestry on private lands may not be remunerative enough for farmers or desirable from a food production perspective.


    1.        Problems for guards at forest check posts to know where a particular truckload of bamboo is coming from. Trucks from private lands will need transit passes, which means that forest officials will have to monitor the felling


    The Need of the Hour

    Deregulating bamboo production does not address the issue of building a transparently governed forest sector.

    “Forest lands” also includes community forest resources to which title has been granted under the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006. Tens of thousands of gram sabhas have now received such titles. The FRA explicitly grants rights over bamboo and other non-timber forest products such as tendu patta to forest dwellers. Nevertheless, forest officials have constantly (illegally) denied bamboo harvesting and transport rights to communities, citing the IFA.

    In Maharashtra, Governor unequivocally amended the IFA as well as other State Acts to exclude bamboo and tendu patta from State control, facilitating a mini-revolution in forest-based livelihoods in eastern Maharashtra in the past few years.

    The need of the hour is to follow in Maharashtra’s footsteps and remove any caveats accompanying the amendment of the IFA, and amend all other State-level Acts and Rules to remove any contradictions with the FRA.

    The removal of obstacles to the exercise of community rights will open up an alternative form of forestry, managed and regulated by communities. The government would do well to address the real challenge of building a productive, bottom-up managed and transparently governed forest sector.


    The amendment was cleared as an ordinance and is therefore yet to get parliamentary backing. However experts welcomed it saying that it removed ambiguity on the status of bamboo and also brought it in harmony with the related Forest Rights Act.

    The measure will go a long way in enhancing the agricultural income of farmers and tribal, especially in North-East and Central India.


    Important Points

    ·          ‘Khelo India’ programme to be launched by - Union Government 

    ·         International Mountain Day observed on - 11th December 2017

    ·         ASEAN India Connectivity Summit begins in Delhi on - 11th December 2017 be


    ‘Khelo India’ programme to be launched by - Union Government  Union vernment

    Union government would soon be inaugurating the Khelo India program with a budget of Rs 1756 crore for the period of 2017-18 to 2019-20. The program objects at mainstreaming sports as an instrument for individual development, national development, community development and economic development.
    The declaration was made by the Union Minister State for Youth Affairs and Sports, Rajyavardhan Rathore while speaking at the Yuva Sambardhana Utsav organized by Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan, at KIIT Campus, Bhubaneswar on 10th December 2017.
    As per Rathore, the plan marks a watershed moment in the Indian sports history and will affect the entire sports ecosystem, including coaching for excellence, community sports, talent identification, infrastructure, competition structure and sports economy.

    The campaign focuses to promote 150 marked schools from various districts and 20 universities across the Nation, as hubs of sporting excellence, which would enable skilful sportspersons to follow both education and competitive sports.

    Other Key Features

    ·         The program would cover approximately 200 million children under the age group of 10-18 under a massive national physical fitness initiative.

    ·         It would also handle the launching of a new Pan Indian Sports Scholarship scheme that would cover 1000 most talented young athletes every year across marked sports disciplines.

    ·         Each athlete nominated under the scheme would get an annual scholarship worth Rs 5 lakh for the duration of eight years.

    ·         Further, a campaign to mark sports talents under 17 years in schools will also be inaugurated from 31st January 2018 to 8th February 2018 under this scheme.  It will be telecasted live.

    ·         In fact, the year 2018 will be observed as the Year of sports.


    International Mountain Day observed on - 11th December 2017

    International Mountain Day was celebrated globally on 11th December 2017 with the topic ‘Mountains under pressure: climate, hunger and migration’.
    The day is celebrated to highlight how climate, hunger and migration are affecting highlands and to fortify that sustainable mountain development is united into the 2030 Agenda and in the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
    Present year’s theme is also connected to the Mountain Partnership Global Meeting, which is planned to be held from 11th to 13th December 2017 at the headquarters of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UNs in Rome, Italy.
    The conference will aim on the challenges and opportunities in certain mountain development and will
    inaugurate a Framework for Action to help concrete actions and establish policies that fortify the resilience of mountain people and environment.

    Did you know?

    ·         The basics of the International Day go back to 1992, when the Chapter 13 of Agenda 21 “Managing Fragile  Ecosystems: Sustainable Mountain Development” was accepted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

    ·         The growing attention paid to the significance of mountains led the UN General Assembly to announce 2002 the UN International Year of Mountains.

    ·         On the occasion, the UN General Assembly appointed 11th December, from 2003 onwards, as ‘International Mountain Day’.

    ·         The Root Problem Mountain areas are home to more than one billion people. More than half of the human population depends on the mountains for facilities such as fresh water, food and clean energy, which are growingly scarce with time.

    ·         However, mountains are extremely unguarded to climate change, land degradation, deforestation and natural disasters.

    ·         The increasing temperatures also indicates that mountain glaciers are melting at unexpected pace, affecting freshwater supplies for millions of people.

    ·         Presently, around 39% of the mountain population in developing nations, is estimated to be unguarded to food insecurity.

    ·         Uttarakhand government makes LED bulbs compulsory in all government offices The state government of Uttarakhand has taken a new scheme for energy conservation by making it mandatory for all government offices to use LED bulbs.

    ·         The move is supposed to decrease the consumption of electricity in offices and civic areas.


    ·         Key Highlights

    ·         The state government has made mandatory to install LED bulbs in various government offices, educational institutions, civic bodies and institutes taking grants from the government.

    ·         The scheme is focused at reducing consumption of electricity.

    ·         All the District Magistrates and HODs have been instructed to strictly execute the orders, following sanctions by the state cabinet.

    ·         The purchase of sodium vapour lamps and incandescent lamps by all the state departments have also been restricted.

    ·         All the departments would now have to buy LED bulbs.

    ·         Talking on the same, the state’s Energy Secretary Radhika Jha stated that 40 lakh LED bulbs have been given so far as against the target of 1 crore LED bulbs. She explained that once the set target is met, it would head to the saving of 39 crore units of electricity every year, which is worth approximately Rs 98 crore.


    ASEAN India Connectivity Summit begins in Delhi on - 11th December 2017

    The ASEAN India Connectivity Summit began in New Delhi on 11th December 2017. The subject of the 2-day Summit is Powering Digital and Physical connectivity for Asia in the 21 st Century.
    The summit would witness the attendance of Union Transport Minister Nitin Gadkari and ministers of state for External Affairs, Gen VK Singh and MJ Akbar and Minister of State for Communications, Manoj Sinha.
    The spokespersons from ASEAN include Deputy Communications Minister of Viet Nam, Phan Tam and
    Secretary of State, Ministry of Public Works and Transport of Cambodia Tauch Chankosal.

    Key Focus Areas

    ·         The main objective areas of the summit are Infrastructure, Roadways, Shipping, Energy, Digital, Finance and Aviation.

    ·         It focuses at accelerating present connectivity prospects, identifying concerned issues, evolving suitable policy recommendations and forming strategies to amplify economic, industrial and trade associations between ASEAN and India.

    ·         It would be bringing policymakers closer, senior officials from the government, investors, industry leaders, spokespersons of trade associations and entrepreneurs on the similar platform to intentions on the partnership models that may be accepted between the governments to build infrastructure links between India and ASEAN Nations.

    The Organisers

    ·         The summit has been arranged by the Ministry of External Affairs in collaboration with AIC and CII.

    ·         The partner firms are Ministry of Civil Aviation, Ministry of Power, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region, Ministry of Shipping and Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications.

    ·         The Associate companies include EXIM Bank, IDFC Institute, National Maritime Foundation and RIS.


    Qatar has signed a multi-billion dollar deal with this nation to buy 24 Typhoon ghters - Britain

    • The ASEAN India Connectivity Summit (AICS) is being held in this city - New Delhi

    • This country won the gold medal at the Hockey World League Final - Australia

    • India won these many medals at the 10th Asian Airgun Shooting Championship - Five

    • He has been appointed as the new Performance Director for women's boxing - Raaele Bergamasco

    • The Union government has sanctioned Rs 75 crore for setting up a LPG bottling plant in this state - Meghalaya

    • India nished at which position at the Hockey World League (HWL) Final tournament - Third

    • This state government is planning to build Kamakhya as the cleanest pilgrimage site in the country - Assam

    • This state government has made it compulsory for all Government oces to install LED bulbs -Uttarakhand

    • This state has generated 40 thousand direct employments – Assam • The Union government has launched door-to-door campaign against this life-threatening disease - TB

    • This mountain is the tallest mountain in the British Antarctic Territory - Mt Hope

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