Paper 3 Topic: Security challenges and their management in
border areas; linkages of organized crime with terrorism.
Centre plans to revive
The Centre is planning to revive the National
Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC), a project conceived by the UPA government in
The government is planning to rework the NCTC
proposal to allay the fears of State governments that their intelligence
gathering mechanism would be encroached upon by the Centre.
What was proposed?
It was after the 26/11 Mumbai terror attack
that the then Home Minister suggested setting up of the National Counter
Terrorism Centre (NCTC), on the lines of the one in the United States and the
British Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre, for coordinated counter-terror
operations. However, concerned that such an agency could well be abused by the
Centre for political ends, many Chief Ministers struck down the idea primarily
because the unit was to function under the Intelligence Bureau and, unlike the
U.S. agency, it would be empowered to conduct searches and arrests under
Sections 43 and 43A of the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act.
It has the power to conduct searches and arrests in any part of
The NCTC, to be located within the Intelligence Bureau, will carry
out counter-terror operations and collect, collate and disseminate data on
The agency will also maintain a data base on terrorist and their
associates including their families.
The NCTC will also formulate a response to terror threats. It is
meant to serve as a single and effective point of control and coordination of
all counter terrorism measures.
It will also have the mandate to carry out anti-terror operations,
if any, through, or in conjunction with, the State police.
Sources: the hindu.
Paper 2 Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and
agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.
India, Russia to set up agro
India and Russia have signed a pact to set up
25 integrated infrastructure centers for irradiation treatment of perishable
food items to improve shelf life and cut post-harvest losses.
At least 7 centers will be set up in Maharashtra, with the first
centre near Shirdi to be ready next year.
Perishable items ranging from flowers to fish will be treated
there on a commercial scale.
The agreement was signed between Russia’s United Innovation
Corporation (UIC) — a subsidiary of Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation —
and Hindustan Agro Co-op Ltd on the sidelines of the BRICS Business Forum.
As part of the agreement, a JV will be formed for this purpose.
These irradiation centres will use the technology and technical
solution based on gamma-facility and/or electron accelerator.
In irradiation, food products are subjected to
a low dosage of radiation to treat them for germs and insects, increasing their
longevity and shelf life.
Radiation treatment is carried out in dosage
recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and it neither
reduces the nutritional value of food nor spoils their taste and appearance.
How this will help India?
In India, according to estimates, post-harvest
losses in food and food grains are around 40-50%, primarily due to insect
infestation, microbiological contamination, physiological changes due to
sprouting and ripening, and poor shelf life.
The wastage of fruits and vegetables alone is about Rs. 60,000
crore annually. Including cereals, meat, pulses and flowers, the annual loss is
estimated to be Rs. 2,50,000crores. Besides, there are a few low level
irradiation plants in the country, which are not adequate.
With the proposed centres, it is possible to reduce these losses.
Sources: the hindu.
Paper 2 Topic: Parliament and State
Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers &
privileges and issues arising out of these.
Smaller parties, Independents
in RajyaSabha unite for more talk time
Vice-President Hamid Ansari has formally
recognised a group of 22 MPs belonging to parties with less than four MPs and
certain independents as a consolidated block — the United Group.
This is only the third time in the history of Indian Parliament
that this is happening, the first was in 1983, and the second in 1990.
What was the need for it?
Hailing from ideologically diverse backgrounds
and including nominated MPs, this group of MPs have united to secure more time
to speak in House debates, where their solitary or numerically lean status
afforded them as little as three minutes of speech time.
Significance of this move:
Smaller parties and independent MPs who may
want to contribute to debates rarely get enough time to put forward a cogent
argument. But, with this grouping, now such MPs form the third largest group in
the RajyaSabha, after the Congress and the BJP. Now, they also will find a
place in the Business Advisory Committee (BAC) that decides time allotment.
Time allotted to parties to speak on debates
depends entirely on their strength in the House. A grouping of this kind will,
therefore, make it possible to speak for.
Sources: the hindu.
Paper 3 Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their
applications and effects in everyday life Achievements of Indians in science
& technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.
Self-powered UV photodetector
charges energy storage devices
Researchers from the Indian Institute of
Science (IISc), Bangalore, have developed a cost-effective, high-performance,
self-powered UV photodetector that can use the harvested optical energy for
direct self-charging of energy storage devices such as supercapacitor.
How was it developed?
The researchers developed the photodetector by
integrating semiconducting vanadium doped zinc oxide (VZnO) nanoflakes with a
Zinc oxide (ZnO), the base material for UV detection, can be doped
with vanadium to produce photodetectors that are self-powered. When doped with
vanadium, the microstructure of ZnO changes from nanorods to closely-packed nanoflakes,
causing an increase in the surface area to the volume of the material.
The nanoflakes are 80% more porous than nanorods. The UV light
that gets into the pores undergoes multiple reflections and finally gets
The VZnOnanoflakes are further annealed (heated and allowed to
cool slowly) in the presence of hydrogen gas at 350 degree C (hydrogenated) to
increase the conductivity and reduce the recombination of photo-generated
The vanadium-doped zinc oxide nanoflake structure has 98%
light-harvesting efficiency, which is much higher than the 84% seen in zinc
The photodetector has superior performance in terms of faster
detection of photo signals in the order of milliseconds even when UV light
intensity is low.
It can be used for operating electronic devices in the absence of
external power source.
Sources: the hindu.
Facts for Prelims
Vice-President Hamid Ansari is
visiting Hungary and Algeria:
The Hungary visit should serve to underline and acknowledge the
support and understanding that India has extended to that country over a long
In the case of Algeria, which has rich oil, gas and phosphatic
resources, India sees this visit as an opportunity to kindle interest in
cooperative ventures. Collaboration in the field of space missions is also on
Hungary is a parliamentary constitutional republic in Central
Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to
the north, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest,
Slovenia to the west, Austria to the northwest, and Ukraine to the northeast.
The country’s capital and largest city is Budapest. It is a member of the
European Union, NATO, the OECD and the Schengen Area.
Algeria is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean
coast. It is the largest country in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the
northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the
southwest by the Western Saharan territory, Mauritania, and Mali, to the
southeast by Niger, and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea. The country is a
New Secretary-General of UN:
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has formally
elected Antonio Guterres as the new Secretary-General of the
He will serve for five years starting from January 1, 2017.
The UN Secretary-General is the head of the United Nations
Secretariat and is de facto spokesperson and leader of the UN.
Leave Pakistan’s MFN status
In the midst of rising tensions in the wake of
the Uri attack, some in India are calling for the withdrawal by India of the
most favoured nation (MFN) trade status for Pakistan.
Source; The Economic
What is Most Favoured Nation status?
Most Favoured Nation is a treatment accorded
to a trade partner to ensure non-discriminatory trade between two countries
vis-a-vis other trade partners. The importance of MFN is shown in the fact that
it is the first clause in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
Under WTO rules, a member country cannot discriminate between its trade
partners. If a special status is granted to a trade partner, it must be
extended to all members of the WTO.
Exceptions for MFN:
MFN at the same time allows some exemptions as
One such exemption is the right to engage in Free Trade
Agreements. This means members can participate in regional trade agreements or
free trade agreements where there is discrimination between member countries
and non member countries.
Another exemption is that members can give developing countries
special and differential treatment like greater market access. This special
concession are in different forms like reduced tariff rates from developing
country imports, concessions that allows developing countries to give subsidies
to their production sectors etc.
All these exceptions are subjected to strict conditions.
Have Pakistan and India accorded MFN status to
The MFN status was accorded to Pakistan in 1996
as per India’s commitments as a WTO member. But Pakistan has not reciprocated,
reportedly citing “non-tariff barriers” erected by India as well as huge trade
imbalance. According to the WTO’s report on the Trade Policy Review of Pakistan
(in 2015), “Pakistan is in the process of offering India Non-Discriminatory
Market Access” (similar to MFN).
Why Pakistan is not extending MFN status to
India and Pakistan have great trade
potentials. But trade among the two is not much because of political mistrust.
Pakistan has been slow to take a positive decision on conferring the status to
An important factor that makes it difficult for Pakistan to confer
MFN status to India is the political impact of the tone of MFN status. It may
feel that India is the most favored nation for Pakistan in literary sense
though MFN means non-discrimination.
To overcome that, Pakistan has devised a new term called Non
Discriminatory Market Access (NDMA) which is equivalent to MFN. Such alteration
of the MFN is happening elsewhere as well. For example in the US, the MFN is
named as Permanent Normal Trade Relations (PNTR) clause. Pakistan has recently
promised that it will confer India the NDMA status soon.
Does MFN mean preferential treatment?
In literal explanation, MFN doesn’t mean
preferential treatment. Instead it means non-discriminatory trade that ensures
that the country receiving MFN status will not be in a disadvantageous
situation compared to the granter’s other trade partners. When a country
receives MFN status, it is expected to raise trade barriers and decrease
tariffs. It is also expected to open up the market to trade in more commodities
and free flow of goods.
MFN essentially guarantees the most favourable
trade conditions between two countries. These terms include the lowest possible
trade tariffs, the least possible trade barriers and very crucial to trade
relations– highest import quotas. The disclaimer only requires equal treatment
to all Most Favoured Nations.
What are the pros of MFN?
MFN status is extremely gainful to developing countries. The clear
upsides are access to a wider market for trade goods, reduced cost of export
items owing to highly reduced tariffs and trade barriers. These essentially
lead to more competitive trade.
MFN also cuts down bureaucratic hurdles and various kinds of
tariffs are set at par for all imports. It then increases demands for the goods
and giving a boost to the economy and export sector.
It also heals the negative impact caused to the economy due to trade
protectionism. This irks the domestic industry.
A country that grants MFN on imports will have its imports
provided by the most efficient supplier. This may not be the case if tariffs
differ by country.
Granting MFN has domestic benefits: having one set of tariffs for
all countries simplifies the rules and makes them more transparent. It also
lessens the frustrating problem of having to establish rules of origin to
determine which country’s part of the product (that may contain parts from all
over the world) must be attributed to for customs purpose.
As MFN clause promotes non-discrimination among countries, they
also tend to promote the objective of free trade in general.
What are the disadvantages of MFN?
The main disadvantage is that the country has to
give the same treatment to all other trade partners who are members of the WTO.
This translates into a price war and vulnerability of the domestic industry as
a result. The country is not able to protect domestic industry from the cheaper
imports and in this price war, some domestic players have to face heavy losses
or growth restrictions.
What is the volume of trade between India and
Bilateral trade between India and Pakistan
stands at $2.61 billion. The major commodities and goods in which both
countries trade include cement, sugar, organic chemicals, cotton, man-made
filaments, vegetables and certain fruits and tubers, mineral fuels, mineral
oils, salts, earths, stone, lime, dry fruits, steel and plastering material.
What are India’s options?
India could consider making use of a ‘security
exception’ clause — Article 21(b)(iii) — in the GATT to deny the MFN status to
Pakistan or bring in certain trade restrictions.
Why this move would have little or no impact?
First, there is simple economic logic. Free trade remains the best
policy even if your trading partner wishes to be more closed. As economist Joan
Robinson is supposed to have said, if your trading partner dumps rocks into
their harbour to block entering cargo, you do not make yourself better off by
dumping rocks in your own harbour.
Second, trade with Pakistan accounts for less than 1% of India’s
total trade, and the figures for Pakistan are not very much higher. Thus, even
strategically, trade policy with respect to Pakistan today can neither be
offered as a carrot nor wielded as a stick. Nor does it amount to much for
Third, offering MFN status to a trading partner is an obligation,
not a choice, for WTO members. The fact that Pakistan is not living up to its
WTO obligations is not a good reason for India not to do so. Indeed, India
would be perfectly within its rights to raise Pakistan’s non-compliance at the
Finally, free trade fosters not just prosperity but also peace and
What will be the political fallout of such an
action by India?
Though it will have only a “symbolic” impact
in trade terms, politically it could result in India losing goodwill in the
South Asian region, where it enjoys a trade surplus and is a party to a free
trade pact called SAFTA, which also includes Pakistan. The move may also not go
down well at the WTO-level.
Impact on Pakistan:
The immediate impact could be very little, looking at the volume
of trade between the two sides. However, India may opt to drag Pakistan to the
WTO’s Dispute Settlement Body. This will allow New Delhi to remove trade
benefits afforded to Islamabad under MFN status.
Another step which India may consider is withdrawing concessions
provided to Pakistan under provisions of the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA)
agreement. New Delhi can further ask members of the SAFTA to follow suit. And
in the light of recent events, members of SAFTA are unlikely to stand against
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan
and Sri Lanka are the members of SAFTA which aims to increase the level of
trade and economic cooperation among the SAARC nations by reducing the tariff
India has already made it clear that it will go all out to isolate
Pakistan. And the latest decisions are part of India’s peaceful retaliation
Why Pakistan should consider granting MFN
status to India?
Granting MFN status to India may be beneficial
for both countries. It may expand the size of the market because of trade
creation and trade diversion. This possibly can help expand production on a
large scale and also infuses competition into markets.
� India is a huge economy
relative to Pakistan; opening up of trade between the two countries will expand
the markets for both countries, stimulate investment both domestic and foreign,
and thereby increase the growth rate of the economies of the respective
countries. This in turn can create employment opportunities, increase income
levels and lead to improvement in the standards of living in both the
� Such “investment creation” can
be partly offset by what might be called “investment diversion” when
investments are diverted from the most rational location in the world to
Pakistan and India. The MFN status can also benefit consumers, producers and
workers in Pakistan because of more trade with India.
India can legitimately claim the moral high
ground in fulfilling our WTO obligations while Pakistan does not. Revoking
Pakistan’s MFN status would shred this advantage. It may offer revanchist
satisfactions, but it would not reflect mature statesmanship.